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Close examination of the bedstead has revealed a series of tool marks. These marks are of paramount
importance in:
  • Confirming the unity of the bed elements.
  • Illuminating workshop practice and technique.
  • Identifying furniture from the same workshop.
As already demonstrated the castors and castor impressions unify all four posts. There is no evidence
of castors having been replaced. (In order to raise and protect the feet a set of English brass and leather
castors, circa 1750, have now been fitted.) Both foot posts display the same chuck marks showing that
they have been turned on the same lathe and have never been reduced in height.


A series of very distinct clamp marks can be seen on the back of both the leaf carved knees, on both foot
posts behind the knees (where it was not necessary to have the timber dressed), and on the reverse of all
three parts of the carved cornice, where nine clamp marks can be found. This shows that all carved
components of the bed were made in the same workshop and held for carving with the same clamp.
Clamp marks behind movable knee on right foot post
Illustration of clamp marks behind movable knee on right foot post.
One clamp head leaves a distinct surface impression as well as an outline as it has a tooled surface
of crosshatching to ensure a good grip while carving. This clamp head is 1 ¾” in length and leaves
diamond pattern impressed in the wood.
Clamp marks on back right of knee.
Three clamp marks are found on each section of the cornice.
Clamp mark no.1 (above) and no.6 (below)
of 9 on cornice of bed.
The presence of the clamp marks show how and where the timber was held for carving.  Repetitive 
overlapping marks on two faces of the foot posts suggests they were clamped many times
during the carving of the feet.
Highlighting clamp mark numbers 1 - 9, clamp mark no.1 /9 located top of image, no.6 /9 located lower left of image.
It is unusual to find clamp marks on period furniture however clamp marks are also found on the inside 
of the rear seat rails on the saddle seat side chairs as documented in the Cadwalader Study.13 There are 
no clamp marks evident on the straight railed chairs as they were not needed to be secured for carving 
of the rails.